Defining protected areas economically and ecologically
// Biodiversity of Fennoscandia (diversity, human impact, nature conservation). Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Centre of RAS, 1997.
The following possible cases are to be analyzed when organizing protected nature territories and defining their boundaries: 1.The nature protection role of the territory is rather high as well as its scientific, recreational, cultural and historical value. There is no doubt about the necessity of bestowing the status of a protected territory (the status of a reserve, national or natural park) on the area, this necessity caused by natural and social but not economic factors. There is no need to substantiate the establishment of such a protected nature territory from a social and economic point of view. Ecological criteria are in this case the decisive ones. 2.The area is quite well developed economically. It may serve as a resource base for extractive industries (lumbering, mining etc.) simultaneously possessing valuable plant and animal species and various monuments. The status of a protected territory granted to such an area may result in total or partial prohibition of economic activities there, and as a consequence manufacturing of some necessary products will cease and the number of jobs will drop. In this case there emerges a conflict between economic and ecological objectives of the area's utilization, and the making of a definite decision meets some difficulties. The decision is stipulated by economic criteria, and is made separately for each individual case. There are two ways out of the conflict: - withdrawal of the land areas used in economic activities from the existing or projected protected territory. This way was chosen when defining the projected "Ladoga skerries" national park in North Ladoga area; - ecological substantiation of the acceptability of economic activities in the area - evaluation of the impact produced by the new or existing enterprise on the environment (Environmental Impact Evaluation - EIE) by comparing the damage imposed on the environment by the enterprise with the fees for normative environmental pollution received from the enterprise. If the damage from the enterprise's activities in the given area is less than its pollution fees implementation of the project is justifiable. In the other case economic activities in the considered area are unacceptable.